Apple VR Project

Apple is rumored have a secret team of hundreds of employees working on virtual and augmented reality projects.

Apple VR Project

At a Glance

  • Apple is investigating multiple ways virtual and augmented reality could be implemented into future iOS devices or new hardware products. It isn't yet known when a VR or AR product will launch, but Apple's focus on the technology has ramped up over the past several months.

Rumored Products

  • VR headset
  • Augmented reality Maps info
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Apple's Secret Virtual Reality Project

Apple has been exploring virtual reality and augmented reality technologies for more than 10 years based on patent filings, but with virtual and augmented reality exploding in popularity, Apple's dabbling may be growing more serious and could lead to an actual product or feature in the not-too-distant future.

Apple is rumored to have a secret research unit comprising hundreds of employees working on AR and VR, exploring ways the emerging technologies could be used in future Apple products. In recent months, VR/AR hiring has ramped up and Apple has acquired multiple AR/VR companies, suggesting something is afoot in Cupertino.


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There are dozens of possibilities for VR/AR technology in Apple products, ranging from augmented reality features within Maps and other apps to virtual 3D interfaces for the iPhone to full-on virtual reality headsets. With products like the Oculus Rift and Microsoft HoloLens garnering significant interest, Apple has been inspired to test its own headset.

Apple is said to be working on developing several prototype virtual reality headsets, but little is known about the company's work beyond the fact that prototypes exist. It is not clear if Apple is working on full virtual reality technology that competes with the Oculus Rift or simpler augmented reality technology like the Microsoft HoloLens, but it's reasonable to assume that Apple is investigating many avenues of complexity.

Even if a headset doesn't end up panning out, there are other potential ways VR/AR can be incorporated into Apple products. As an example, we've already heard rumors of a potential augmented reality feature coming to Maps, which would allow people to hold up their iPhones to see information on nearby restaurants and businesses.

Apple executives have shared little information on the topic of virtual reality, but during Apple's first quarter earnings call in 2016, Apple CEO Tim Cook said virtual reality was more than just a niche. "It's really cool," Cook said. "And it has some interesting applications."

Cook has made similar comments about augmented reality, calling it a great commercial opportunity and great for customers. "AR can be really great," he said. "We have been and continue to invest a lot in this. We're high on AR in the long run."

According to Cook, augmented reality should encourage, not replace, human contact, and it should not be a "barrier." "There's no substitute for human contact," said Cook. "And so you want the technology to encourage that."

According to Cook, augmented reality is the "larger of the two" because it allows people to "be very present" while using the technology. He believes less people would be interested in virtual reality, but admits it has interesting use cases for education and gaming.

Going forward, this roundup will track the company's development progress on virtual and augmented reality as presented through rumors and leaked information.

Augmented Reality vs. Virtual Reality

Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are similar technologies, but there's a major difference between them and their potential applications vary widely. Virtual reality refers to a full immersive experience in a virtual world, while augmented reality refers to a modified view of the real world.

The difference can perhaps be best summed up by a comparison between two products, one AR and one VR. Google Glass, Google's now-defunct set of smart glasses, is an example of augmented reality. The eye-worn Google Glass let users view the world as it is, but it offered a heads-up display that overlaid relevant computer-provided information over that real world view, such as local weather, maps, and notifications.


In comparison, Facebook's Oculus Rift is a virtual reality headset offering an immersive visual experience that doesn't augment the real world with additional sensory information -- it fully replaces the real world with a simulated world.

Augmented reality provides computer-generated context and information about the world around us while allowing us to interact with our surroundings, while virtual reality is designed to isolate us from our surroundings so we can interact with fictitious worlds.


Potential applications for the two are vastly different. Virtual reality is singularly focused on immersive content consumption because it makes the wearer feel as if they're actually experiencing what's going on in the simulated world through visual, tactile, and audio feedback. Virtual reality is largely linked to gaming right now, but it also has the potential to recreate real world experiences for educational or training purposes.

A VR headset from Apple could be sold alongside the Apple TV or a Mac as a gaming accessory or a tool for exploring virtual environments.

Augmented reality doesn't hinge on immersive content and while less exciting because it's augmenting reality instead of replacing it, it has a wider range of potential applications. In fact, most people have likely already experienced augmented reality, perhaps even on the iPhone. Snapchat's face-morphing features are an example of augmented reality, as is Google Translate's ability to translate text in real time using the iPhone's camera.

In the future, an iPhone equipped with augmented reality technology could potentially be able to look at and understand the world around the user, providing relevant information. For example, using the camera to scan an unknown plant could bring up a Wikipedia article with identification details, or scanning a restaurant could bring up an on-screen menu. In a store, scanning a product might bring up price comparisons or user reviews, and at a tourist site, scanning a landmark might bring up relevant historical info or a map to follow to view the entire area.

There's also a third option, which falls in between virtual reality and augmented reality -- mixed reality. Apple is rumored to have a special interest in mixed reality, which blends holographic imagery with the real world. The best example of a mixed reality product is Microsoft's HoloLens, able to create visual holograms in actual spaces.

Apple's VR/AR Team

Apple's work on virtual and augmented reality dates back multiple years, but rumors picked up starting in March of 2015 when news hit that Apple had a small team of people working on augmented reality. In 2015 and into early 2016, Apple's team grew as the company hired employees with expertise in AR/VR technology and made multiple related acquisitions.

Apple is now said to have "hundreds" of experts in virtual and augmented reality working on secret research.


Apple's most prominent virtual reality hire in recent months was computer science professor Doug Bowman, who previously led the Virginia Tech's Center for Human-Computer Interaction. He specializes in three-dimensional user interface design and has written a book on the subject covering 3D interfaces and the benefits of immersive virtual environments. He has expertise with both virtual and augmented reality.

Apple has also hired employees that have worked on virtual or augmented reality products at Microsoft and Lytro. Some recent hires are said to be from Microsoft's HoloLens team, while others worked at Lytro, a company working on a camera able to blend live action and computer graphics for a live action VR experience. Employees coming from the HoloLens team would have experience creating an advanced augmented reality headset.


The Lytro Immerge 360 degree camera

Zeyu Li, who served as a principal computer vision engineer at Magic Leap (a startup developing a head-mounted AR/VR display), is now working at Apple as a "Senior Computer Vision Algorithm Engineer."

Yury Petrov, a former research scientist at Facebook-owned Oculus, is now serving as a "research scientist" at Apple. According to his LinkedIn profile, Petrov studied virtual reality experiences, prototyped optics, and developed computer simulation software.

With Apple's team encompassing hundreds of employees, there are many other virtual reality expert hires that have gone under the radar. On LinkedIn, there are multiple software engineers with virtual reality experience that are employed by Apple, but it is unclear if they work on the secret AR/VR team.


Many members of Apple's AR/VR team may have joined the company though acquisitions. Across 2015 and 2016, Apple purchased several companies that created AR/VR-related products, and some of its AR/VR acquisitions even date back several years.


Apple purchased Israeli-based 3D body sensing firm PrimeSense in 2013, sparking speculation that motion-based capabilities would be implemented into the Apple TV. PrimeSense's 3D depth technology and motion sensing capabilities were used in Microsoft's initial Kinect platform.

PrimeSense uses near-IR light to project an invisible light into a room or a scene, which is then read by a CMOS image sensor to create a virtual image of an object or person. This enables motion-based controls for software interfaces, but it's also able to do things like measure virtual objects and provide relative distances or sizes, useful for augmented reality applications like interactive gaming, indoor mapping, and more. PrimeSense technology can also create highly accurate 360 degree scans of people and objects, potentially useful for virtual reality applications.


Apple acquired augmented reality startup Metaio in May of 2015. Metaio built a product called the Metaio Creator, which could be used to create augmented reality scenarios in just a few minutes. Prior to being purchased by Apple, Metaio's software was used by companies like Ferrari, who created an augmented reality showroom.

Metaio technology was also used in Berlin to allow people visiting the site of the Berlin Wall to use a smartphone or tablet to see what the area looked like when the Berlin Wall was still standing. Metaio's technology is one that could potentially be used to implement augmented reality capabilities into Apple apps like Maps.


Apple acquired Faceshift in August of 2015, marking its second augmented reality purchase in 2015. Before being acquired by Apple, Faceshift worked with game and animation studios on technology designed to quickly and accurately capture facial expressions using 3D sensors, transforming them into animated faces in real time. Faceshift was also working on a consumer-oriented product that would allow people to morph their faces into cartoon or monster faces in real time in Skype.

Faceshift's technology has a wide range of possible use cases. It could be used for things like real-time avatars for FaceTime video chats, or built into a wider augmented or virtual reality product.


Emotient, a company that built tools for facial expression analysis, was acquired by Apple in January of 2016. Emotient's technology uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to read human emotion, features that have been used in the real world by advertisers to determine emotional reactions to advertisements.

There are dozens of things Apple could do with Emotient, ranging from better facial detection in the Photos app to analyzing customer feelings in Apple retail stores to unlocking iOS devices, but it also has potential AR/VR uses. Like Faceshift, Emotient's technology could be used to analyze and transform facial expressions for the creation of virtual avatars, useful for social media purposes and games.

Flyby Media

Purchased in early 2016, Flyby Media is another company that worked on augmented reality. Flyby created an app that worked with Google's 3D sensor-equipped "Project Tango" smartphone, allowing messages to be attached to real world objects and viewed by others with one of Google's devices.


A look at the Flyby Messenger app before it was pulled from the App Store, via TechCrunch

For example, a person could "scan" a landmark like San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge and write a message attached to it. A person visiting the bridge later would then be able to scan the bridge with the Flyby app to see the message. The Flyby app likely drew the attention of Apple because it was able to recognize and understand different objects that were scanned, technology that could be used by Apple in a number of ways in apps like Photos and Maps.


Several of Apple's competitors are working on virtual or augmented reality projects, which is another factor that's likely renewed Apple's interest in the matter. Many competing technology companies have already launched VR/AR products or are planning to launch in the near future putting development ahead of whatever Apple may be working on.

Facebook - Oculus Rift

Oculus Rift is one of the first virtual reality headsets that will be available for consumers. It's set to be released at the end of March, and is priced competitively at $599. The Oculus Rift debuted on Kickstarter in 2013 and has been under development since then, attracting a lot of attention and bringing virtual reality into the spotlight.

Worn over the head, the Oculus Rift has two 1080 x 1200 resolution OLED panels for each eye, both with a 90Hz refresh rate for an immersive visual experience that isn't subjected to motion blurring or choppiness. It includes a gamepad, external infrared tracking sensors to track where a user's head is positioned, and optional Oculus Touch motion controllers that can be tracked in 3D space with the sensors.

The Oculus Rift is going to be the first widely available VR headset, but it is still subject to some technical limitations. It is not a standalone device, requiring a connection to a Windows PC equipped with a powerful GPU, and it is targeted at the gaming market. Software must be specially created for the Oculus Rift using the Oculus SDK. Oculus has said that it cannot bring the Rift to Macs because Apple does not prioritize high-end GPUs. Current Macs cannot support the Oculus Rift.

Oculus Rift users will also be able to watch both conventional movies and 360 degree videos, and there are social-oriented apps in development as Oculus is now owned by Facebook. Virtual worlds where people can interact with one another socially are one of the areas where there's significant general consumer potential for devices like the Oculus Rift.

Should Apple go in a similar route, creating a gaming-focused headset, it could potentially resemble the Oculus Rift and be subject to some of the same restrictions, namely a connection to a powerful Mac. Apple will need to implement more powerful graphics cards in its machines for a device similar to the Oculus Rift.

Microsoft - HoloLens

Microsoft's HoloLens is similar to Google Glass, with a head-worn pair of glasses that resemble safety goggles. The HoloLens incorporates a stereoscopic 3D display, spatial sound, a microphone array, a video camera, and sensors like an accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. It runs the Windows Holographic operating system, which allows people to interact with the HoloLens through gestures, eye movement, and voice.

The HoloLens combines both virtual and augmented reality, creating virtual objects Microsoft calls "holograms" that can be viewed and manipulated alongside real-world objects. Microsoft has showcased multiple use cases for the HoloLens, including an interactive version of Skype, an augmented reality first person shooter, an augmented reality version of Minecraft, a 3D modeling application for creating objects to be 3D printed, and human anatomy lesson.

Microsoft's HoloLens has been attracting a lot of attention because of the way that it mixes virtual reality and augmented reality, going beyond typical augmented reality applications but without losing the benefit of real-world interaction. It has the potential to offer the best of both technologies, and Apple could potentially follow in Microsoft's footsteps with a similar mixed reality product if it does opt to go for a full wearable.

Microsoft is started shipping HoloLens Development Units to developers on March 30, 2016. Developers must pay $3,000 to purchase one of the devices, which can be used for app development purposes. Microsoft has not yet announced a HoloLens launch date for the general public.

Google - Cardboard

Google Cardboard is an ultra simple virtual reality implementation, building a cardboard viewer around an existing smartphone. Given its simplicity, the Google Cardboard isn't likely a product Apple will emulate, but it does raise the possibility of an accessory that could be used alongside the iPhone to enable virtual reality experiences.


Google Cardboard headsets are constructed from low-cost components and require a compatible app to split an iPhone's display into two to create a stereoscopic 3D image. As an open platform, Google Cardboard has been used by multiple companies to build apps with 3D experiences and games. Other features include a photography app for taking 360 degree photos and an educational component for sending students on virtual field trips.

Google is said to be working on a second-generation Cardboard headset, along with a full standalone virtual reality headset that would be similar in design to the Oculus Rift but without the need for a connection to a computer.

Other products

PlayStation VR - PlayStaton VR is similar to the Oculus Rift with a full head-mounted display that will work with the PlayStation 4 console. Prototype versions include a 1920 x 1080 120fps OLED display with a wide field of view, stereoscopic 3D, and head-tracking capabilities.

Samsung Gear VR - Developed in partnership with Oculus, the Gear VR is similar to the Google Cardboard, incorporating a Samsung Galaxy Note 5, Galaxy S6, Galaxy S6 Edge to serve as the display and processor. It includes custom sensors and high field of view lenses that make it more accurate than the simpler Google Cardboard.

HTC Vive - The HTC Vive is a head-mounted display HTC is developing alongside Valve. Like the Oculus Rift and the PlayStation VR, it's primarily aimed at gamers and will work with the Steam platform. It includes two 1080 x 1200 90Hz displays in each eyepiece and it incorporates more than 70 different sensors. With an included base station, it can detect a person's movements to avoid obstacle collisions.

AR/VR Patents

Apple has filed at least three patents that relate directly to a virtual reality headset, all dating back several years. While technology has likely advanced somewhat beyond these, they provide an interesting look at the ideas Apple has explored in the past.

A 2008 patent application covered a fairly basic "personal display system" designed to mimic the experience of being in a movie theater when watching video.


A second patent described a "Head Mounted Display System" with a "laser engine" that projected images onto a clear glass display worn over the eyes, similar to glasses. In this configuration, the headset connected to a handheld video player such as an iPod to provide processing power.


A third patent originally filed for in 2008 was similar in design, covering a goggle-like video headset designed to let users watch movies and other content. It outlined two adjustable optical modules lined up with the user's eye, which could provide vision correction and allow for the viewing of 3D content. Apple described this as offering a personal media viewing experience.


A fourth patent from 2008 covered a video headset frame similar to the Google Glass, which would allow a user to slide their iPhone or iPod into the headset to provide video. The headset was described as an augmented reality product that would let users do things like watch a video or check email while keeping an eye on their surroundings.


Beyond headset-related patents, Apple has also filed for patents describing other ways virtual and augmented reality features could be implemented into its devices. A 2009 patent application, for example, covered camera-equipped 3D displays that would shift in perspective based on a user's relative position.

Such a display would detect head movement, allowing a user to move their head around to look at a 3D image from different angles while also incorporating elements of a user's environment.


2010 and 2012 patents described the use of motion sensors to create a 3D interface for iOS devices using augmented reality techniques. Apple described the interface as a "virtual room" navigated by manipulating the orientation of the device through built-in sensors or through gestures.


In 2011, Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality feature in the Maps app related to mapping the distance to notable landmarks. With the camera, a user could look at the area around them and get real-time estimations of the distance between two points along with overlays of relevant information.


Launch Date

Apple's work on a virtual reality headset is in the prototype stage, so it could be years before a product launches, if it does. Apple often creates prototypes that never go on to become actual products, so there's a possibility that its virtual reality work could be shelved if the company doesn't feel that it's a worthwhile market to enter.

As for augmented reality, there's a good chance that the technology will begin showing up in Apple apps in the near future. Apple has made quite a few acquisitions related to augmented reality, and it doesn't require an entirely new hardware product because it can be implemented through software.

Apple VR Project Timeline

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