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'Apple' Articles

Samsung Doubles Apple's Share of Smartphone Market as Customers Await iPhone 7

The latest data from market research firm IDC reveals that Samsung shipped nearly twice as many smartphones as Apple in the fiscal third quarter. Android-based Galaxy smartphone shipments totaled an estimated 77 million, compared to 40.4 million iPhones, during the three-month period that ended in late June. For Apple, the fiscal third quarter is seasonally its lowest of the year. Samsung was the most popular smartphone vendor in the quarter with a leading 22.4 percent market share, nearly double Apple's 11.8 percent market share. Samsung experienced 5.5 percent year-over-year growth on the strength of the Galaxy S7 launch in March, whereas Apple declined 15 percent compared to the year-ago quarter as customers await the iPhone 7 series in September. One bright spot for Apple was the lower-priced iPhone SE, although the iPhone's average selling price dropped to $595 compared to $662 last year:Apple’s second quarter saw the Cupertino-based giant ship 40.4 million iPhones, representing a 15.0% year-over-year decline from the 47.5 million units shipped last year. The new 4-inch iPhone SE proved successful in both emerging and developed markets as the new SE has captured many first-time smartphone buyers as well as Android users switching over to the Apple ecosystem. The success of the cheaper SE did, however, have an impact on the overall average selling price (ASP) for an iPhone in the quarter. The ASP for an iPhone was $595, down 10.1% from $662 one year ago. As smartphone competition continues to escalate and upgrades continue to slow, Apple will look to drive

Apple's Website Has Hidden Easter Egg to Celebrate Euro 2016

Apple quietly updated the "choose your country" selector on its website a few weeks ago in the United Kingdom and other European countries, adding Euro 2016 country groups and a bracket to celebrate the ongoing football tournament in France. Apple also temporarily added a handful of countries and regions that it does not have regional websites for, including Albania, Iceland, Northern Ireland, Ukraine, and Wales, to ensure that the groups and bracket are filled out properly. The fun "easter egg" discovery is for the 2016 UEFA European Championship currently being held between June 10 and July 10 in France, where eight teams remain: Belgium, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, and

Apple Rises to #3 in Annual Fortune 500 Rankings

Apple rose to 3rd place in the annual Fortune 500 list of the top U.S. corporations based on gross revenue, trailing behind only Walmart and Exxon Mobil. Apple's previous rankings include 5th place in 2015 and 2014, 6th place in 2013, 17th place in 2012, 35th place in 2011 and 56th place in 2010. Other notable carriers, technology companies, and Apple suppliers on the list include AT&T (10th), Verizon (13th), Amazon.com (18th), HP (20th), Microsoft (25th), IBM (31st), Alphabet (36th), Intel (51st), Cisco Systems (54th), Oracle (77th), Qualcomm (110th), Facebook (157th), and Broadcom (331st). Apple's profile highlighted the company's recent slowdown in iPhone and iPad sales, push into India, and the much-rumored Apple Car.After more than a decade of solid growth fueled first by the iPod music player and then by the even more popular iPhone, Apple finally appeared to hit a wall. Still the most profitable publicly-traded company in the world, Apple’s iPhone 6S and 6S Plus upgrades barely outsold their predecessors after arriving on the market at the end of 2015, while sales of the iPad tablet computer continued to shrink throughout the year. In April 2015, the Apple Watch arrived to mixed reviews and modest sales. And though debate raged for a bit about the state of Apple’s sales in China amid a slowing economy there — including an unusual August 2015 email from CEO Tim Cook to CNBC host Jim Cramer claiming no summer slowdown — the year ended on a weak note for the company in Asia. Lately, hopes have turned to the next iPhone upgrade cycle and a push to focus on

Caltech Accuses Apple of Violating its Patented Wi-Fi Technologies

Apple and Broadcom have been jointly named as defendants in a legal complaint filed by the California Institute of Technology last week over alleged infringement of its various patented Wi-Fi-related technologies. Caltech's patents, granted between 2006 and 2012, are highly technical and relate to IRA/LDPC codes that utilize simpler encoding and decoding circuitry for improved data transmission rates and performance. The technologies are implemented in both the 802.11n and 802.11ac Wi-Fi standards used by many Apple products. In the court filing with the U.S. District Court for Central California, Caltech accused Apple of selling various iPhone, iPad, Mac, and Apple Watch models, along with other Wi-Fi products, that incorporate these IRA/LDPC encoders and/or decoders and thereby infringe upon the four asserted patents in question.Apple manufactures, uses, imports, offers for sale, and/or sells Wi-Fi products that incorporate IRA/LDPC encoders and/or decoders and infringe the Asserted Patents. Apple products that incorporate IRA/LDPC encoders and/or decoders and infringe the Asserted Patents include, but are not limited to, the following: iPhone SE, iPhone 6s, iPhone 6s Plus, iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, iPhone 5c, iPhone 5s, iPhone 5, iPad Air, iPad Air 2, iPad Pro, iPad Mini 4, iPad Mini 3, iPad Mini 2, MacBook Air [and] Apple Watch.Apple has at least temporarily pulled stock of its AirPort Extreme and Time Capsule Wi-Fi base stations from its U.S. stores, but it's unclear if the move is related. Broadcom, as one of Apple's main suppliers of Wi-Fi chips, is also

Tim Cook Visits Beijing, Shares Ride to Apple Store Using Didi Chuxing

As planned, Apple CEO Tim Cook arrived in Beijing on Monday for his latest visit to China, where the iPhone maker has experienced a turbulent few months. Earlier today, he caught a ride using Didi Chuxing, the Chinese ride-sharing service that Apple just invested $1 billion in, alongside the Uber rival's president Jean Liu. Cook meets with Liu, left, and developers at an Apple Store in Beijing (Image: CNBC) While an earlier report said Cook plans to meet with senior Chinese government officials to discuss a range of issues, including iBooks and iTunes Movies store closures and a recent patent dispute, the CEO has thus far met with App Store developers at an Apple Store in Beijing for a seminar hosted by Liu, per CNBC.At the Apple store, Cook attended a seminar hosted by Didi Chuxing's President Jean Lui, also known as Liu Qing, and attended by the founders and CEOs of some of China's top app providers, including Groupon-like Meituan, picture-editing app MeituPic, news content provider Toutiao.com, culinary app DayDayCook and game developer Tap4Fun.Cook, who shared photos of his visit on Twitter and Weibo, understands the importance of Apple maintaining a positive image in China. "Taxi!" Caught a cab in Beijing this morning with Didi Chuxing's Jean Liu. pic.twitter.com/Sl2xnzXtNY— Tim Cook (@tim_cook) May 16, 2016 Greater China, including Taiwan and Hong Kong, is Apple's second largest market by revenue after the U.S. Last month, the iPhone maker reported that sales dropped 26 percent in the region in the second quarter, primarily due to declining iPhone sales as China's

Apple Named World's Most Valuable Brand Despite Recent Slowdown

Apple has been named the world's most valuable brand in 2016, according to the latest Forbes rankings, despite posting its first negative-growth quarter since 2003 with declining sales across its iPhone, iPad, and Mac product lines. Apple's recent slowdown was not enough to prevent the company from securing the number one position in the list for the sixth consecutive year, ahead of rivals Google and Microsoft. Forbes placed Apple's brand value at $154.1 billion, up 6-percent from 2015 and nearly double Google's value of $82.5 billion. Coca-Cola, Facebook, Toyota, IBM, Disney, McDonald's, GE, Samsung, Amazon, AT&T, BMW, and Cisco rounded out the top fifteen. Apple Watch fashion partner Hermès ranked 48th on the list. Other notable companies listed include Intel (17th), Verizon (21st), HP (38th), Sony (76th), Netflix (79th), and T-Mobile (93rd). Apple remains the world's most valuable company with a market cap of over $510 billion, despite its stock being down around 30-percent from May 2015 highs. Google parent company Alphabet trails closely behind, and briefly surpassed Apple as the world's most valuable company in February. Apple also topped Interbrand's most valuable brand list in 2013, 2014, and 2015. Update: AAPL is down nearly 3 percent in trading today, resulting in Google parent company Alphabet's market cap once again briefly surpassing Apple's. The two companies will likely continue to trade positions until the volatility

Apple Forecasts Another Revenue Decline Next Quarter

Apple today reported its first year-over-year decline in quarterly revenue since 2003, and its guidance for the third quarter of the 2016 fiscal year suggests that the downward trend is likely to continue. Apple expects third quarter revenue of between $41 billion and $43 billion, which would be up to 18 percent lower than the $49.6 billion in revenue it posted in the year-ago quarter. The company also expects a gross margin between 37.5 percent and 38 percent, operating expenses between $6 billion and $6.1 billion, other income/expenses of $300 million, and a tax rate of 25.5 percent. Apple's first revenue decline in thirteen years is largely attributable to the first ever year-over-year decline in iPhone sales, which dropped to 51.2 million from nearly 61.2 million in the year-ago quarter. iPad and Mac sales also declined to 10.25 million and 4.03 million respectively in the March quarter, compared to 12.62 million and 4.56 million respectively a year ago. Meanwhile, Apple experienced growth in both its Services and Other Products categories, the latter of which totaled $2.19 billion and includes sales of iPods, Apple TVs, Beats Electronics, and Apple-branded and third-party accessories. Quarterly revenue from the iTunes Store, App Store, Mac App Store, iBooks Store, AppleCare, Apple Pay, licensing, and other services amounted to nearly $6 billion, up from $5 billion in the year-ago quarter. The Americas remain Apple's largest market with $19.1 billion in revenue, followed by China where revenue fell rather sharply to $12.5 billion compared to $16.8

Apple Forecasted to Report First Quarterly Revenue Decline Since 2003

Apple is set to announce its financial earnings results for the second quarter of the 2016 fiscal year at 1:30 p.m. Pacific, and the consensus among analysts is that the iPhone maker will report its first quarterly revenue decline in over a decade. Wall Street analysts project that Apple will report revenue of around $52 billion, or nearly a 10-percent decline compared to the year-ago quarter. Today's earnings results are based on the three-month period between December 27, 2015 and March 26, 2016. Apple itself projected quarterly revenue of between $50 and $53 billion, compared to $58 billion in the year-ago quarter, possibly signaling the end of over 50 consecutive quarters of year-over-year revenue growth dating back to 2003. Tim Cook, CEO, already cautioned investors that iPhone sales will likely decline in the second fiscal quarter. That decline will be realized if Apple sells fewer than 61.2 million iPhones this quarter, which appears likely given most analysts expect sales to hover around the 50 to 51 million mark. Apple's quarterly revenue between 2005 and 2016 (Source: Statista) iPhone SE sales will not be included in that total, as the lower-priced smartphone launched on March 31, five days after the quarter ended. MacRumors will be providing live blog coverage of Apple's earnings conference call with CEO Tim Cook and CFO Luca Maestri at 2:00 p.m. Pacific. AAPL is trading slightly lower on the NASDAQ at around the $104 mark in pre-market trading ahead of today's announcement.

Apple Turns 40: Reflecting on Four Decades of History

Apple, co-founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne on April 1, 1976, celebrates its 40th anniversary today. Last night, the company hung up a pirate flag at its One Infinite Loop campus to pay homage to the Jobs-led team that worked on the original Macintosh, which was viewed as rebellious at a time when Apple was focusing on the Lisa. (Image: Michael Jurewitz) From near-bankruptcy to becoming the world's most valuable public company, Apple has been through a series of highs and lows over the past four decades. Apple's history is vast, but the timeline below provides a basic overview of some of the company's important moments over the years. Apple Timeline 1976 - Apple's history begins in the garage of Steve Jobs' childhood home in Los Altos, California, where Steve Wozniak and Jobs tested -- but designed elsewhere -- the first Apple I computers, which they later introduced at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Byte Shop places 50 orders. The computer later sells for $666.66.

Apple's U.S. Workforce Continues to Diversify Per Latest Federal Data

Apple has shared its most recently filed Federal Employer Information Report EEO-1, providing a breakdown of the company's U.S. workforce as of August 2015. AppleInsider first spotted the document over the weekend. The employment data reveals that Apple is slightly more diverse compared to its previous July 2014 report, hiring 1,475 African-American or Black employees, 1,633 Hispanics or Latinos and 1,662 Asians over a 13-month period. The latest EEO-1 data contradicts Apple's public-facing diversity page, which said the company hired 2,200 Black employees, a 65% increase over the previous year, and 2,700 Hispanic employees, a 50% year-over-year increase, based on August 2015 data. It is unclear what is causing the discrepancy between the data, but Apple claims its own diversity numbers are "far more accurate" than EEO-1 data.We make the document publicly available, but it’s not how we measure our progress. The EEO-1 has not kept pace with changes in industry or the American workforce over the past half century. We believe the information we report elsewhere on this site is a far more accurate reflection of our progress toward diversity.Apple's U.S. workforce continues to be overwhelmingly white and male, especially at the executive and senior official level. EEO-1 data shows Apple had 31,135 white male employees as of August 2015, representing about 43% of its U.S. workforce. At WWDC 2015, CEO Tim Cook said Apple is a "better company" by being more diverse. Note: Due to the political nature of the discussion regarding this topic, the discussion thread is

Apple to Pay 318 Million Euros in Italy to Settle Corporate Tax Probe

Apple has agreed to pay 318 million euros in Italy to settle an investigation that determined the iPhone and iPad maker failed to pay nearly triple that amount in corporate taxes in the country over a five year period, according to Italian newspaper La Repubblica. Italian regulators in Milan concluded a tax probe of Apple in March, accusing the company of booking profits generated in Italy through an Irish subsidiary in an effort to lower its taxable income base and save 879 million euros between 2008 and 2013. Apple has yet to comment on the deal, but previously said it has paid all necessary taxes in countries that it operates. "These new allegations against our employees are completely without merit and we’re confident this process will reach the same conclusion," the company said in March. Apple Italia is part of the company's European operation headquartered in Ireland, where Apple pays a significantly lower corporate tax rate compared to other EU countries. Ireland has a corporate tax rate of 12.5% for normal business activities, compared to a standard rate of 27.5% in Italy, per The Guardian. Apple faces a similar Irish tax probe by the European Commission, which formally accused the company of receiving illegal state aid from Ireland in September 2014. A decision in the lengthy investigation has likely been delayed until early 2016, as the Brussels-based executive cabinet has requested supplementary questionnaires. Apple's tax policies in Europe have come under intense scrutiny over the past three years, as the company is said to utilize multiple

Apple and Ericsson Settle Litigation With Global Patent License Agreement

Ericsson announced today that it has reached a seven-year global patent cross licensing agreement with Apple for standard-essential technologies, including GSM, UMTS and LTE cellular standards, thereby settling all litigation between the two technology companies. Apple will make an upfront payment to Ericsson and continue paying royalties on an ongoing basis. The terms of the agreement are confidential, but investment bank ABG Sundal Collier believes Apple could be charged around 0.5% of iPhone and iPad revenue, per Reuters. The licensing agreement applies to several technology areas, including 5G development, video network traffic management and wireless network optimization, and grants certain other undisclosed patent rights. The deal ends all litigation before the U.S. International Trade Commission, U.S. District Courts and European courts."We are pleased with this new agreement with Apple, which clears the way for both companies to continue to focus on bringing new technology to the global market, and opens up for more joint business opportunities in the future," said Kasim Alfalahi, Chief Intellectual Property Officer at Ericsson.Apple originally filed suit against Ericsson in January 2015, arguing that it was demanding excessive royalties for patents not essential to LTE standards. Ericsson countersued in a Texas courtroom just hours later, seeking an estimated $250 to $750 million in annual royalties for Apple to continue licensing its patented wireless technologies. Apple declined to honor those demands. Ericsson subsequently sued Apple again in February

European Probe of Apple's Irish Tax Policies Extended to 2016

A decision in the European Commission probe of Ireland's alleged "sweetheart tax deal" with Apple will likely be delayed until after the Irish elections in early 2016, as Financial Times reports the executive cabinet has now requested supplementary questionnaires in the lengthy investigation. The European Commission began Apple's Irish tax probe in June 2014, and the Brussels-based executive body formally accused the iPhone maker of receiving illegal state aid from Ireland in September 2014. A decision was originally expected earlier this year, but the additional information requested will likely cause further delays. Apple's tax policies have been scrutinized on numerous occasions over the past three years, as the company is said to utilize multiple subsidiary companies located in the Irish city of Cork to move money around without significant tax penalties. Apple continues to deny any wrongdoing, and Ireland vows to take the European Commission to court over any negative ruling, according to the report. Apple's Irish tax probe is part of a larger crackdown by the European Commission on possible corporate tax avoidance in EU countries. Earlier this month, the commission reportedly accused McDonald's of "benefiting from arrangements that allowed it to pay no tax on European royalties in Luxembourg," and Fiat and Starbucks were ordered in October to repay up to €30 million in back

Multiple Apple Services Experiencing Widespread Outage [Updated]

Apple has updated its system status page to reflect widespread issues affecting multiple Apple products and services since approximately 7:30 PM Pacific, including the App Store, Apple TV, iBooks Store, iTunes Match, iTunes Store, Mac App Store and Radio. Many users are also unable to fully access or use the Apple website, Apple Online Store, Apple ID, Apple Music, FaceTime, iCloud, iMessage, Mail, TestFlight and several other Apple services, suggesting possible larger server or DNS issues. Apple's standard response on its system status page says it is investigating and will provide a status update as more information becomes available. Update 8:38 PM: Apple's system status page now indicates the issues have been resolved, and users are indeed reporting Apple's services are up and running once

Apple to Create 1,000 New Jobs in Ireland Amid Tax Probe

Apple plans to hire an additional 1,000 employees at its Cork offices in Ireland, a country where the iPhone maker shelters multi-billion-dollar profits from corporate taxes in the United States, according to Reuters. Apple's offices in Cork, Ireland Ireland's main foreign investment agency, the IDA, said Apple was to add 1,000 jobs to its office in Cork by mid-2017 from 5,000 at present. It said the company had also added 1,000 jobs in the past year.In September 2014, the European Commission accused Apple of receiving illegal state aid from Ireland in return for maintaining jobs. A decision in the investigation is due after Christmas, according to Ireland's finance minister Michael Noonan. Apple’s Tim Cook says Cork operations won't be affected by EC tax investigation outcome. Full interview on 6.1 news https://t.co/sdY8mbdMey— RTÉ News (@rtenews) November 11, 2015 Apple has paid a corporate tax rate of about 2.5% in Ireland on $109 billion in profits over the past five years, far less than an average 12.5% paid by many other companies in the country. The U.S. has an average corporate tax rate of about 15% to

Phil Schiller Discusses Retina MacBook, Apple's 'Intense Collaboration'

Apple marketing chief Phil Schiller recently met with Mashable editor-at-large Lance Ulanoff for a rare interview, discussing topics ranging from the new 12-inch MacBook to Apple's "intense collaboration" that makes such products possible. Schiller emphasized how Apple's process from product conception to production has greatly changed over the past few decades, as a result of "intense collaboration" between industrial design and engineering teams within the company."From the beginning, the Mac has been about Apple taking responsibility for the whole thing: hardware, software, how applications can work and, increasingly, Internet services. But that means something different today than it did 20 years ago," Schiller said. "Today, those teams are not only integrated and designing something together, they’re actually thinking of features that could only exist because of that integration and solving problems that could only be solved because of that unique advantage."The interview provides a closer look at the new 12-inch MacBook, ranging from its ultra-small logic board to "speaktenna" combined speaker and antenna design, as an example of what's possible because of Apple's collaboration. Some like to call it the "Speaktenna." The black strip along the back edge of the MacBook speakers is a never-before-tried combination of speakers and antennas for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. […] In the case of the speaktenna, Apple engineers did everything in their power to fit the maximum amount of technology possible into the tiny anodized aluminum chassis. This included creating

Apple and Huawei Close Gap on Samsung in Global Smartphone Market

The latest numbers from research firm IDC show that Samsung and Apple continue to lead the worldwide smartphone market, but Chinese handset maker Huawei is placing increasing pressure on the industry giants after experiencing strong 60.9% growth compared to the year-ago quarter. IDC's Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker reveals that Samsung continues to be the top smartphone vendor with 23.8% market share, shipping an estimated 84.5 million smartphones in the third quarter of the calendar year, compared to 23.9% market share and 79.6 million smartphones shipped in the year-ago quarter. Apple trailed in second with 13.5% market share after shipping 48 million smartphones in the calendar third quarter, compared to 11.8% market share and 39.3 million smartphones shipped in the year-ago quarter -- a 22.2% year-over-year increase, which cut away at Samsung's market lead. Apple's growth can be attributed to strong iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus sales, which Apple says has led to the highest rate of Android switchers it has ever measured. The new smartphones set a record with 13 million sales over their September launch weekend. Apple released its complete FY Q4 financial results yesterday. Huawei also closed the gap on Samsung and Apple due to strong growth in China and Europe. The Shenzhen-based company was the third-largest smartphone vendor, a position that previously belonged to Chinese rival Xiaomi, with 7.5% market share and 26.5 million smartphones shipped in the third quarter. Lenovo and Xiaomi rounded off the top five largest smartphone vendors

Samsung May Follow Apple by Launching Smartphone Leasing Program

Samsung is planning to follow in Apple's footsteps by launching its own Galaxy smartphone leasing program in the U.S. over the coming months, according to Forbes.The South Korean electronics giant is planning to launch a program for leasing its Galaxy phones in the U.S. market, similar to the one Apple announced just weeks ago, according to an industry executive with knowledge of Samsung’s plans. Samsung may be launching this leasing program in the next several months, although that timeline may accelerate, the executive said.The report does not offer any other details about Samsung's plans for the rumored smartphone leasing program, but the move would make sense as the wireless industry moves away from subsidized pricing and two-year contracts in favor of monthly installment plans and financing programs for payments. Apple introduced the iPhone Upgrade Program alongside the iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus earlier this month, enabling customers to upgrade to a new iPhone every year with AppleCare+ warranty coverage included. Eligible customers who sign up for the program will have the full cost of their new iPhone broken down into 24 equal payments of around $30 to $45 per month depending on the model, plus a premium for AppleCare+. After the first 12 monthly payments, the customer gains the option to trade in their iPhone for a new one and enter into a new 24 month installment plan to pay it off. The final cost of an entry-level 16GB iPhone 6s with AppleCare+ purchased through the iPhone Upgrade Program is $777.84, which is ultimately the same price as purchasing a

Appeals Court Rules Apple Was Entitled to Sales Ban on Samsung Products in Earlier Trial

A U.S. federal appeals court has ruled that Apple was entitled to an injunction on multiple Samsung products that a lower court ruled to be infringing on the iPhone maker's patented technologies in an early 2014 trial. As noted by Bloomberg, the ruling sets an important precedent, since it could have an impact on how damages are awarded in future trials involving patented inventions from large technology companies such as Apple, Samsung and Google.The decision could have far-reaching consequences in how disputes are resolved when it comes to complex devices. The ability to block use of an invention is a powerful tool that increases the price tag when negotiating settlements.The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in Washington echoed that in its ruling:“The right to exclude competitors from using one’s property rights is important,” the Federal Circuit ruled in a 2-1 decision. “And the right to maintain exclusivity -- a hallmark and crucial guarantee of patent rights deriving from the Constitution itself -— is likewise important.”In May 2014, a jury in the lower court Apple vs. Samsung trial found that Samsung willfully infringed on three of the five patents involved in the lawsuit, related to technologies including slide to unlock and data syncing. Samsung was ordered to pay Apple a settlement of $119.6 million. Samsung informed the appeals court in March that only one of its products currently for sale infringes upon a single Apple patent, so any potential injunction would not have much of an impact on the South Korean company's bottom line. Nevertheless,

Beats 1 Lead Executive Ian Rogers Leaves Apple

Apple Music senior director and former Beats Music CEO Ian Rogers has resigned from Apple nearly two months after the launch of the streaming music service, the company confirmed to the Financial Times today. Rogers was among a group of executives that joined Apple last year when the iPhone maker acquired Beats for $3 billion. Rogers's official title was Senior Director of Apple Music, a position he held since August 2014, according to his LinkedIn profile. Rogers, who served as Beats Music CEO between January 2013 and August 2014, departed Apple to join an undisclosed "Europe-based company in an unrelated industry" on the west coast. He is credited for hiring Beats 1 DJ Zane Lowe, who worked at BBC Radio 1 from 2002 to 2015. Beats 1 is a 24/7 streaming radio station built into Apple Music, featuring a mix of the latest music and guest appearances from artists such as Drake, Dr. Dre, The Weeknd, Eminem, Pharrell Williams and