Europe


'Europe' Articles

Apple Stores in Europe Offering Free Coding Sessions for Code Week

EU Code Week runs from October 6-21, and during the event Apple will offer more than 2,000 free coding sessions, with at least one free session every day in every Apple store in Europe. Like previous Today at Apple events, these sessions are open to all customers, and Apple says they are designed to help people of all ages and skill levels learn to code. Sessions include "How To: Get Started with Coding," "Teacher Tuesdays: App Design & Coding Basics," and "Kids Hour: Sphero Maze Challenge." “Coding is a critical skill that gives people of all ages the chance to create and share their ideas with the world,” said Tim Cook, Apple’s CEO. “Apple has long believed coding is the language of the future, and we’ve created a range of tools to make it fun and accessible for everyone. We’re thrilled to offer thousands of sessions in Apple stores for EU Code Week, and can’t wait to share our love for coding with young people and educators across Europe.” Additionally, schools and coding organizations across Europe will be able to offer their own Swift workshops through Apple's Everyone Can Code curriculum and the new coding challenges created for EU Code Week. One Swift Playgrounds app challenge is the "Incredible Code Machine," and is designed for entry-level coders. In the press release announcing its participation in EU Code Week, Apple touted a few milestones in the Swift coding language and Today at Apple coding sessions. According to the company, over 75,000 attendees have taken part in more than 14,000 coding sessions at Apple stores in Europe over the past year.

PSA: Apple's 2018 Back to School Promotion is Live in Europe Today

Apple today launched its annual Back to School promotion in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, and unlike the multi-week delay in past years, the 2018 edition has also gone live simultaneously in many European and Asian countries. Participating countries in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East include Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United Arab Emirates. For a limited time, qualifying higher-education students, parents purchasing on behalf of higher-education students, and faculty and staff at both higher-education and K-12 institutions can receive a free or discounted pair of Beats headphones with the purchase of an eligible Mac or iPad Pro. Apple is offering the choice of free BeatsX, Solo3 Wireless, or Powerbeats3 Wireless headphones with the purchase of any new MacBook, MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, iMac, iMac Pro, or Mac Pro. As usual, the Mac mini is excluded. Apple is also offering free BeatsX or Powerbeats3 Wireless with the purchase of any new 10.5-inch or 12.9-inch iPad Pro, with the option to pay an extra amount that varies by country for Solo3 Wireless headphones. Like last year, Apple's sixth-generation iPad and iPad mini 4 models do not qualify for the offer. The promotion runs until September 25 or October 2 of 2018 depending on the country, and is available through Apple's online store, retail stores, and authorized campus stores. Read the terms and conditions

Tim Cook Visits Ireland as Apple Promotes Its Support of Over 1.7 Million Jobs in Europe

Apple CEO Tim Cook has arrived in Ireland, the latest destination on his European tour, which has included stops in Italy and the Netherlands. Apple CEO Tim Cook and Ireland's Taoiseach Leo Varadkar Leo Varadkar, the Taoiseach or Prime Minister of Ireland, tweeted that he had a "good meeting" with Cook in the capital of Dublin on Monday. It's unclear what was discussed, but it appears to have been a routine meeting. Good meeting with @tim_cook of @Apple this evening at ⁦@merrionstreet⁩. He’s on to Cork next to open an extension to the facility there pic.twitter.com/XRBTHzNC2c— Leo Varadkar (@campaignforleo) June 18, 2018 Cook has since headed to Cork, where Apple's European headquarters are located. There, he will formally announce an expansion of its Hollyhill campus. Apple says a new building will provide space for an additional 1,400 employees. Since 2012, Apple says it has invested nearly €220 million to develop the facility. Apple's campus in Cork Apple, on its recently updated Job Creation page in Europe, says it is Cork's "largest private employer" and "proud" that many of its employees in the area have worked at the company for decades. Apple's website notes that it "has been based in Cork for over 35 years and now directly employs 6,000 people throughout Ireland supporting all aspects of the business." The company also says its Irish team has "doubled in size over the last five years and includes over 80 different nationalities." Apple says Cork is home to its "only wholly owned manufacturing facility in the world. It provides configure-to-order

Apple Begins Selling Danalock V3, First Retrofit HomeKit-Enabled Smart Lock Available in Europe

Danalock today announced that the HomeKit version of its Danalock V3 smart lock is now available for purchase from Apple's website and retail stores in more than 20 other countries across Europe, after limited availability in April. Danalock V3 is said to be the first and only retrofit smart lock compatible with Apple's HomeKit platform and Home app in Europe. Like the August Smart Lock, it is mounted on the inside of the door, enabling users to use a regular key for locking and unlocking the door from the outside if needed. HomeKit support means users can control the lock with Siri voice commands or the Home app using an iPhone, iPad, or Apple Watch, without needing a physical key. Through the Home app, it's also possible to give keyless access to family members. For added convenience, users can connect the Danalock with other HomeKit accessories, such as cameras, lights, thermostats, switches, and security systems. Apple's online store notes that the Danalock V3 is easy to install and globally compatible, with an adjustable cylinder set included in the box in countries outside of Scandinavia. It is battery powered and uses advanced AES-256 encryption. Danalock V3 with HomeKit is available at select Apple retail stores in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. It's also available on Apple's online store in more than 20 countries in Europe and on Danalock's website. Pricing: £219.95 in the United Kingdom and €249.95 in most other European

Apple Turns Down Invite to EU Hearing on Tax Evasion Because it Could Be 'Detrimental' to Appeal Process

As Apple continues to face a legal battle with the European Commission concerning the regulator's claim that Apple received illegal state aid from Ireland and owes billions in back taxes, the latest development has seen the Cupertino company decline an invitation to testify before a special committee on the tax evasion claims (via Reuters). According to a letter to the European Parliament shared on Twitter today by Parliament member Sven Giegold, Apple said it "will not be able to participate in a public hearing" on the topic of tax evasion. The company's senior director for European government affairs, Claire Thwaites, explained that while the company appeals the Commission's decision alleging state aid from Ireland, "it is important to ensure public commentary does not prejudice those proceedings." This is rotten! #Apple refuses to testify before the special committee on tax evasion of the European Parliament. No company stands above democracy! We should now withdraw Apple's lobby badges to access to the Parliament! This is the company's letter: pic.twitter.com/U2I4G6jNp9— Sven Giegold (@sven_giegold) June 1, 2018 Because of this, Apple fears its presence at the June 21 EU hearing "could be detrimental" to its appeal, and "any potential appeals thereafter." Thwaites ended the letter by stating Apple would, however, be open to meeting privately with Committee members to address questions on its decision. Since the appeal is ongoing and likely to be heard at the General Court in the near future we will not be able to participate in a public hearing on this

E.U. to Take Ireland to Court For Failing to Claim Apple Tax

The European Commission said on Wednesday it will take Ireland to court for its failure to recover up to 13 billion euros ($15.3 billion) of tax due from Apple (via Reuters). Apple was ordered to pay the unpaid taxes in August 2016 after the Commission ruled that the company had received illegal state aid. The Commission argued that Irish revenue commissioners gave Apple unfair advantage between 1991 and 2007 by allowing the company to move income from the European market through two "non-resident" head office subsidiaries based in Ireland. Ireland vowed to appeal the ruling. “More than one year after the Commission adopted this decision, Ireland has still not recovered the money,” EU Competition Commissioner Margrethe Vestager said, adding that Dublin had not even sought a portion of the sum. “We of course understand that recovery in certain cases may be more complex than in others, and we are always ready to assist. But member states need to make sufficient progress to restore competition,” she added. The Commission said the deadline for Ireland to implement its decision had been Jan. 3 this year and that, until the aid was recovered, the company continued to benefit from an illegal advantage. Ireland's finance ministry said it had never accepted the Commission's analysis in the Apple state aid decision, but would collect the money due pending Dublin's own appeal of the ruling. "It is extremely regrettable that the Commission has taken this action, especially in relation to a case with such a large scale recovery amount," the ministry said in a statement.

Apple Launches 2017 Back to School Promotion in Europe: Free Beats With Select Mac or iPad Pro Models

Apple today launched its annual Back to School promotion in Europe — links below. Apple is offering the choice of a free pair of Beats Solo3, BeatsX, or Powerbeats3 headphones to qualifying students, parents of students, and educators who purchase an eligible Mac with education pricing for a limited time. Eligible models include any new MacBook, MacBook Pro, MacBook Air, iMac, or Mac Pro. Mac mini does not qualify. The promotion also offers free BeatsX wireless headphones with the purchase of any 10.5-inch or 12.9-inch iPad Pro, or students can pay extra for Beats Powerbeats3 or Solo3 wireless headphones. Apple's new 9.7-inch iPad and iPad mini 4 models do not qualify for the promotion. Participating countries in Europe include Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United Arab Emirates. The promotion is available on Apple's online education store, and at Apple retail stores, until October 2, 2017. Apple has outlined the full eligibility requirements in its terms and conditions (UK version shown), available at the bottom of the education store on its website in each country. Students are required to verify their enrollment or acceptance in a higher education institution in order to participate in the promotion in most countries. Not a student or looking for better deals? Visit our Apple Deals roundup for other discounts on Apple products and

European Commission Made 'Fundamental Errors' in Irish Tax Ruling, Says Apple

Apple has claimed that the European Commission made "fundamental errors" when it ruled last year that the company owed Ireland 13 billion euros ($13.7 billion) in unpaid taxes plus interest. Apple appealed the commission's decision in December, but on Monday the company published a piece in the Official Journal of the European Union detailing 14 pleas in law to support its action, according to The Irish Times. The European Commission argues that Irish revenue commissioners gave Apple unfair advantage between 1991 and 2007 by allowing the company to move income from the European market through two "non-resident" head office subsidiaries based in Ireland. Apple and the Irish government, which has also appealed the commission's decision, argue that the bulk of those profits are due in the U.S. "The Commission made fundamental errors by failing to recognize that the applicants' profit-driving activities, in particular the development and commercialization of the intellectual property (Apple IP), were controlled and managed in the United States," Apple said, according to the Official Journal. "The profits from those activities are attributable to the United States, not Ireland."Apple maintained that the commission had "failed to recognize that the Irish branches carried out only routine functions and were not involved in the development and commercialization of Apple IP, which drove profits". Cupertino also said that the commission failed to conduct a diligent and impartial investigation, and "exceeded its competence" as it relates to the Treaty on the Functioning

AirPods Deliveries Arrive Across Europe as Retail Store Stock Dwindles

Early orders of AirPods arrived across Europe this morning as people were seen waiting outside Apple retail stores eager to get hold of a pair of the new wireless earphones before initial stock ran out. Queues were reported outside Apple's Regent Street store in London and some other brick-and-mortar stores scattered around the U.K., but stock is reportedly limited and going fast. Regent Street was said to have only 150 units, while the Apple Store in Bath reportedly had only 10 in stock upon opening. Reddit user googang619 said that Newcastle's Eldon Square store initially had 25 pairs in at 9 a.m. but "they had sold twenty of them in the first 10 minutes". People queue for AirPods outside Regent Street Apple Store (Image: Derek Baker) For those lucky enough to have got in on the first wave of online orders last week and received the earphones on Monday via courier, the first impressions of Apple's audio accessory have so far been overwhelmingly positive, with wearability and ease of pairing coming in for particular praise. Bringing a new case of AirPods within two inches of an unlocked iPhone, iPod touch or iPad and flipping the lid brings up a dialog on the screen offering to pair the device. Once the option is tapped, the AirPods are identified as the owner's and subsequently pair automatically. MacRumors reader The Game 161 said of the Bluetooth connection: "Incredible, left phone in house, walked up the drive and it was still there". Twitter user Long Zheng called the Bluetooth connection range "spectacular" and said he was able to walk around

Apple Set to Appeal EU Tax Ruling This Week

Apple is set to appeal this week against the European Commission's ruling that it must pay up to 13 billion euros ($13.8 billion) to Ireland in back taxes (via Reuters). EU regulators concluded in August that Apple had received undue tax benefits from Ireland – where the company's European headquarters are located – which allowed it to pay substantially less than other companies. Apple CEO Tim Cook vowed to appeal the ruling at the time, calling the back tax calculation a "false number" and the EU's judgement "total political crap". The Irish government also rejected the conclusion and said it would fight to reverse it. On Monday, Apple's General Counsel Bruce Sewell told Reuters that the company's imminent legal challenge will be based on its belief that EU regulators willfully ignored tax experts to come to its conclusions. "The Irish put in an expert opinion from an incredibly well-respected Irish tax lawyer. The Commission not only didn't attack that - didn't argue with it, as far as we know - they probably didn't even read it. Because there is no reference (in the EU decision) whatsoever."Sewell also said Apple intends to challenge the EU's basis for its penalty judgement, and will argue that a "crazy notion of non-residency" was chosen on purpose to produce a punitive amount, when other legitimate tax law arguments could have been used that would "produce much lower numbers". As to why the EU had gone down its chosen route, Sewell said he believed regulators had singled out the company because of its success. "Apple is not an outlier in any sense that

European Union Moves Forward With Plans to Eliminate Roaming Charges Next Year

European Commission members met on Wednesday to discuss draft rules intended to eliminate roaming charges in the European Union as of June 15, 2017. (Image: TapSmart) The Commission said it is determined to put an end to roaming charges commonly billed by carriers when a customer calls, sends messages, or uses data on their mobile device while abroad in the European Union, outside of their primary country of residence, subject to proportionate checks for abusive usage. European regulators have proposed a "Roam like at Home" solution that would allow travelers to call, text, and browse the web on their mobile devices when abroad in the European Union for no extra charge than the price they pay at home. It is not intended to be used for permanent roaming. "Roam like at Home" is aimed at people who travel in the European Union for work or leisure. "They spend more time at home than they do abroad, and they make most of their calls, texts and use data in their home country," the Commission explained.Example: with his €70 per month contract, Tim living in Netherlands gets unlimited calls, texts and data for his smartphone. When he travels abroad on holidays, he will have unlimited calls and text. For data, he will get twice the equivalent of €70 worth of data at the wholesale roaming data price cap, i.e. 0.85 cent/MB according to the Commission wholesale proposal, meaning more than 16 GB in this case. While roaming, he will get twice the volume he has paid for.The latest draft further clarifies consumer rights, such as ensuring that customers abusing a carrier's

Apple Maps Now Provides Traffic Conditions in Bulgaria, Slovakia, and Slovenia

Apple Maps has recently been updated with all-new traffic data in Bulgaria, Slovakia, and Slovenia, providing users with real-time updates about vehicular traffic in three more European countries. As usual, highly congested areas will display orange or red lines along the roads to indicate that drivers may face delays. The traffic feature is also now available in Gibraltar, a small British territory on Spain's south coast. Apple Maps traffic data is available in over 40 other countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, China, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Africa, Spain, Belgium, Germany, Greece, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Denmark, Poland, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Gibraltar, and select other regions in

Ireland to Formally Appeal $14 Billion Apple Tax Ruling This Week

Ireland's government will this week formally submit an appeal against the European Commission's ruling that it must collect 13 billion euros in unpaid back taxes from Apple, according to Ireland's finance minister Michael Noonan."The government fundamentally disagrees with the European Commission's analysis and the decision left no choice but to take an appeal to the European Courts and this will be submitted tomorrow," Noonan told a European Parliament committee in Brussels on Tuesday.Ireland agreed in September to join Apple in its fight against the European Commission, which in August said the iPhone maker received illegal state aid from the country. The ruling followed a three-year inquiry that found Apple paid between only 0.005% and 1% in taxes in Ireland between 2003 and 2014, compared to the country's headline 12.5% corporate tax rate. Ireland is looking to protect its tax regime that has benefited several multinational corporations, according to Reuters. Apple previously said it is "confident" the ruling "will be overturned" by European courts, but noted the process is "likely to take several years." Apple said it has "provisioned several billion dollars for the U.S. for payment," but it does not expect any near-term impact on its financial results. Apple insists it is "the largest taxpayer in the world" and "follows the law and pays all of the taxes" it owes in each country it operates. Apple CEO Tim Cook has described the tax accusations as "total political crap," and said the lower-end 0.005% tax rate calculated by the European Commission is a "false

Apple Maps Now Provides Traffic Data in Four More European Countries

Apple Maps has recently been updated with all-new traffic data in Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, and San Marino, providing users with real-time updates about vehicular traffic in four more European countries. As usual, highly congested areas will have orange or red lines along the roads to indicate that drivers may face delays. Apple Maps traffic data is available in over 30 other countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, China, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Africa, Spain, Belgium, Germany, Greece, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Denmark, Poland, Switzerland, and other European countries. Meanwhile, Apple Maps transit directions are now available in São Paulo,

T-Mobile Extends Free Data in Europe and South America Until 2017

T-Mobile has announced it is extending its free unlimited high-speed data travel promotion throughout South America and 19 European countries until the end of 2016. Simple Choice and T-Mobile ONE customers will be able to text and use data at the fastest available roaming speeds up to 4G LTE at no extra cost between October 1 and December 31. European Destinations: Armenia, Austria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, U.K. South American Destinations: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Easter Island, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay,

Apple Facing European Commission's Tax Ruling Without a Lobbying Presence in Brussels

Following the European Commission's ruling that Apple must pay 13 billion euros ($14.5 billion) in back taxes because of its "undue tax benefits" in Ireland, The Wall Street Journal reported over the weekend that Apple is facing the EC "without the army of lobbyists and public relations campaigners typical in such fights." The company's lack of a lobbying presence in Europe isn't new, however, as it spent less than €900,000 lobbying European institutions in 2015. According to public filings, in total Apple "doesn't employ any full-time lobbyists" in Brussels, and only five people work part-time. In contrast, Google spent "at least" €4.25 million in 2015, and employs more than ten people in lobbying positions in the European capital. Apple's retail location in Brussels Sources familiar with the matter stated that Apple's "lack of a presence in the EU capital" led to it being unsuccessful in gathering information over the past few years about the impending tax evasion ruling from the European Commission. Still, a source close to the commission's competition office theorized that a heavier lobbying presence might not have been all that helpful for Apple in the end, since the lobbying tactics of a company like Google have not gotten it out of "many antitrust investigations" over the past few years. Google’s experience with the commission’s many antitrust investigations over the years may suggest a bigger Apple lobbying presence in Brussels wouldn’t have had a meaningful impact on the regulator’s decision. People familiar with the directorate say there is

Ireland Agrees to Appeal European Commission's Apple Tax Ruling

Ireland's coalition government has agreed to appeal the European Commission's ruling that it must collect 13 billion euros in back taxes from Apple, according to Reuters. A motion will come before the country's Parliament on Wednesday seeking an endorsement of that decision, a government spokesperson said. It was always expected that both Apple and Ireland would appeal any adverse decision, as insisted by the country's finance minister Michael Noonan, but Ireland's cabinet members became divided on the matter following the ruling. After meeting on Friday, however, the cabinet has seemingly come together and agreed to join Apple's fight against the European Commission. Earlier this week, the European Commission ruled that Apple received illegal state aid from Ireland, following a three-year inquiry into the company's tax arrangements in the country. The investigation's results showed that Apple allegedly paid between 0.005% and 1% in taxes in Ireland between 2003 and 2014, compared to the the country's headline 12.5% corporate tax rate. Apple CEO Tim Cook called the findings "total political crap" and described the lower end 0.005% tax rate as a "false number." In an open letter, Cook said Apple is confident the decision "will be reversed," but the appeal process could take several years in European courts. Apple has previously said it fully complies with international tax law and is the largest taxpayer in the world. Cook also said that Apple has "provisioned several billion dollars for the U.S. for payment," and he forecasted that it could repatriate that

Tim Cook Calls Apple's Irish Tax Avoidance Accusations 'Total Political Crap'

Apple CEO Tim Cook today spoke with Paschal Sheehy, the host of Irish radio show Morning Ireland, providing more commentary on the situation with the European Commission and its decision to make Apple pay 13 billion euros in back taxes from a period between 2003 and 2014. Cook's stance falls in line with his open letter on the situation from earlier in the week, first providing backstory about Apple's history in Ireland and then remaining hopeful that the ruling will ultimately be overturned. His wording -- calling the ruling "political crap" -- also echoes an interview from late last year surrounding a similar tax evasion topic. The radio show marks the first interview Cook has made since the European Commission's ruling earlier in the week. He calls the decision "wrongheaded," and specifically refers to the 0.005 percent tax rate claim as a "false number." In its ruling, the EC stated that Apple paid only a 0.005 percent tax on its European profits, but Cook affirmed that Apple is "subject to the statutory rate in Ireland of 12.5 percent," and that the company "paid $400m in taxes in 2014." When asked directly how he feels when Apple is painted as gaining an "illegal" advantage over tax benefits, Cook mentioned his frustrations over the ruling, and compared it to the company's reaction to the FBI drama earlier in the year, saying Apple never chooses the "easy thing" over the "right thing." In this vein, responding to the question of whether Apple has anything to apologize for or if it did anything wrong, Cook said succinctly "no, we haven't done anything

Apple Expects Appeal of Irish Tax Ruling to Take 'Several Years' With No Impact on Near-Term Financial Results

Following the European Commission's ruling that Apple received illegal state aid from Ireland, and must pay $14.5 billion in back taxes to the country, the company has published a new FAQ that addresses potential concerns investors may have about the decision and the effect on its bottom line. Apple started out by confirming the decision is not final and that it plans to appeal. The company is "confident" the ruling "will be overturned" by courts in the European Union, but it notes the process is "likely to take several years." In the meantime, Apple does not expect any near-term impact on its financial results.How does this decision impact Apple’s near-term financial results? Will you take a tax charge? Does this alter your previous guidance? We do not expect any near-term impact on our financial results nor a restatement of previous results from this decision. We have previously accrued U.S. taxes related to the income in question. The tax rate guidance for Apple’s fourth fiscal quarter that we provided on July 26, 2016 does not change as a result of this decision.Apple added that it does not currently expect the decision to have an impact on its tax rate or cash balance going forward, but the company anticipates it will place an unspecified amount of cash in an escrow account. Apple expects the amount will be reported as restricted cash on its balance sheet. The European Commission's ruling followed a three-year inquiry into Apple's tax arrangements in Ireland, where it paid between 0.005% and 1% in taxes from 2003 through 2014, compared to the country's

Tim Cook Pens Open Letter on Tax Evasion Claims, Says Apple is Confident Decision 'Will be Reversed'

Tim Cook has posted an open letter on Apple's website in response to the European Commission's ruling that Apple must pay 13 billion euros ($14.5 billion) in back taxes dating from 2003 through 2014. Cook's letter begins by discussing Apple's long history in Ireland, which dates back to a small facility that housed 60 employees in 1980. That statistic has now expanded to 6,000 employees across Ireland in total, benefiting both the company and local economies. As it's grown, Cook says that Apple has become "the largest taxpayer in the world," and that "Apple follows the law and we pay all the taxes we owe." Directly confronting the European Commission's ruling, Cook claims that the EC has "launched an effort to rewrite Apple's history in Europe." As responsible corporate citizens, we are also proud of our contributions to local economies across Europe, and to communities everywhere. As our business has grown over the years, we have become the largest taxpayer in Ireland, the largest taxpayer in the United States, and the largest taxpayer in the world. Over the years, we received guidance from Irish tax authorities on how to comply correctly with Irish tax law — the same kind of guidance available to any company doing business there. In Ireland and in every country where we operate, Apple follows the law and we pay all the taxes we owe. The Apple CEO points out that the claim -- stating Ireland gave Apple a "special deal" on its taxes -- is completely false and "has no basis in fact or in law." Cook thinks the commission's ruling also has the potential to set a