iPhoneAtlas notes that the iPod Touch keyboard offers a number of additional keyboard options than the current iPhone keyboard.
The iPod Touch provides keyboards in 14 different languages as well as the following formats:
Users can also switch between two or more keyboards with a special icon on the keyboard.
Apple is expected to provide an iPhone software update later this month to introduce the iTunes Wifi Store to iPhone users. With the plan to introduce international iPhone support soon, it would not be surprising if this additional keyboard support made its way into the coming update.